Diferencia entre umbral absoluto y umbral de diferencia

La percepción de la realidad que tiene cada individuo se crea a través de la información recibida por los receptores sensoriales presentes en el cuerpo humano. Esta información se transfiere al cerebro en forma de señales eléctricas, que recibe e interpreta como experiencias.

Umbral absoluto vs umbral de diferencia

La principal diferencia entre el umbral absoluto y el umbral de diferencia es que el umbral absoluto es la cantidad mínima de estimulación que uno puede interpretar o percibir, mientras que, el umbral de diferencia es la cantidad mínima de cambio requerida en la intensidad de un estímulo, para que alguien pueda interpretar una diferencia.

Los psicofísicos a menudo usan el término ‘ umbral ’ mientras tratan el tema del sentido y la percepción. Umbral significa los valores límite en los que un individuo percibe o interpreta algo. Por ejemplo, hay un valor mínimo en el que alguien puede percibir un cierto estímulo. Este valor es un umbral.

Tabla de comparación entre umbral absoluto y umbral de diferencia

Parámetros de comparación Umbral absoluto <TAG15 la cantidad mínima de diferencia en la intensidad de un estímulo, para que alguien pueda interpretar un cambio. Condición de estímulo No hay cambio en la intensidad del estímulo al determinar el umbral absoluto. Debe haber un cambio en la intensidad del estímulo al determinar la diferencia umbral. Valor determinado El valor determinado especifica la menor cantidad de intensidad. El valor determinado especifica la menor cantidad de cambio en la intensidad. Destinción El umbral absoluto varía entre diferentes personas, y también entre personas y animales. Solo hay una ligera variación entre el umbral de diferencia de diferentes personas. Ejemplo La distancia mínima a la que una persona puede ver una vela encendida claramente. La cantidad mínima de diferencia en la distancia requerida para que una persona note el cambio de posición.

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¿Qué es el umbral absoluto?

Inicialmente, según los estudios de neurociencia y psicofísica, el umbral absoluto se refería al nivel de intensidad mínima de un estímulo en el que los receptores sensoriales de una persona podían percibirlo. Por ejemplo, el volumen más bajo al que se puede escuchar, la distancia más corta hasta la que se puede ver claramente, la menor cantidad de concentración de una fragancia que se puede oler, y así sucesivamente.

Sin embargo, más tarde se observó que los factores internos o externos podrían influir en el umbral absoluto de una persona. Por ejemplo, un individuo puede probar los alimentos fácilmente cuando el nivel de salud era bueno. Pero al resfriarse un poco, la intensidad del sabor mientras se comía la comida disminuyó. Esto dificultó determinar el umbral absoluto del individuo ya que las condiciones de salud son propensas a cambiar en diferentes momentos.

Para contrarrestar este problema, se decidió cambiar la definición y el método para determinar el umbral absoluto de uno. Ahora, los físicos realizarían múltiples pruebas en una persona durante un cierto período. El valor que resultó ser cierto el cincuenta por ciento del tiempo se denominaría el umbral absoluto de la persona.

Actualmente, el umbral absoluto es la menor cantidad de intensidad a la que un individuo puede percibir un estímulo el cincuenta por ciento del tiempo. La idea que influye en esta modificación se conoce como la teoría de detección única. Establece que no existe un umbral absoluto único debido a otros factores influyentes.

¿Qué es el umbral de diferencia?

El umbral de diferencia es la cantidad mínima de diferencia requerida en la intensidad de un estímulo para que un individuo pueda percibir o detectar un cambio. También se conoce como ‘ Cambio recién notificado ’ ( JND ). Al igual que el umbral absoluto, una persona debe poder detectar el mismo valor al menos el cincuenta por ciento del tiempo.

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Algunos ejemplos de umbral de diferencia son – el incremento más pequeño en la intensidad del sonido para detectar un cambio en el volumen del televisor, la cantidad mínima de distancia a la que una persona puede ver un objeto claramente, la cantidad mínima de calor requerida para que uno sienta que la comida está caliente, etc.

La ley de Weber es una ley importante de psicología que cuantifica la detección de cambios con respecto a un cierto estímulo. Según la ley, a medida que aumenta la intensidad de un estímulo, se hace cada vez más difícil percibir un cambio o diferencia. Por ejemplo, si el volumen de un televisor ya es muy alto, sería difícil para una persona detectar si el volumen se ha incrementado o no.

Para tener una comprensión clara de la ley de Weber, imagine un televisor que se reproduce en el volumen 5. Ahora, si cambió a volumen 10 ( un aumento del 100% ), la diferencia en el sonido será notable. Sin embargo, el cambio en el sonido entre los volúmenes 50 y 55 no tendrá el mismo valor. Para que una persona pueda notarlo, el volumen 50 deberá cambiarse al volumen 100 ( un aumento del 100% ).

Diferencias principales entre umbral absoluto y umbral de diferencia

  1. El umbral absoluto es la cantidad mínima de intensidad requerida para que uno pueda detectar un estímulo, mientras que el umbral de diferencia es la cantidad mínima de diferencia de intensidad requerida para que uno sea capaz de detectar un cambio.
  2. A diferencia del umbral de diferencia, el umbral absoluto no implica ningún cambio en la intensidad del estímulo.
  3. El umbral absoluto determina el valor mínimo de intensidad, mientras que el umbral de diferencia determina el valor del cambio de intensidad.
  4. El umbral absoluto varía en gran medida de persona a persona, así como de animales, mientras que solo hay una ligera variación en el umbral de diferencia de diferentes personas.
  5. El umbral absoluto es la cantidad mínima de volumen en la que una persona puede detectar el sonido. Por otro lado, el umbral de diferencia es la cantidad mínima de cambio en el volumen para que una persona lo detecte.
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Síntesis

El umbral absoluto y el umbral de diferencia son conceptos importantes de sentido y percepción. La diferencia entre los dos puede entenderse por el hecho de que el umbral absoluto determina el valor mínimo de intensidad, mientras que el umbral de diferencia determina el valor mínimo de cambio de intensidad.

  1. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02589.x
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7476866/

Contenido

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