¿Qué es la microeconomía? | Definición, teorías, pros y contras

: 24 de junio de 2022

La economía como rama del conocimiento se ocupa de estudiar el comportamiento humano basado en la asignación de recursos escasos para que los productores puedan maximizar sus ganancias, los consumidores pueden maximizar su satisfacción y la sociedad puede lograr la máxima cantidad de bienestar social. En resumen, la economía se trata de crear y tomar decisiones frente a la escasez.

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El tema de esta disciplina se estudia en dos ramas. La microeconomía es una de esas dos ramas amplias.

Definición de microeconomía

El término inglés «Micro» tiene su origen en la palabra griega «mikros», que significa pequeño. En el contexto de la microeconomía, este término se usa para referirse a pequeñas unidades individuales. Para ser más específicos, la microeconomía es el estudio de problemas económicos a nivel individual.

Observa e investiga las actividades económicas de las unidades individuales de una economía —, por ejemplo, una empresa, un mercado, un hogar, una industria individual y muchos más.

Características de la microeconomía

En el contexto de su objetivo principal de equilibrar la escasez con la elección, la microeconomía exhibe los siguientes rasgos característicos:

  1. Observa, investiga y predice el comportamiento de las unidades individuales de una economía.
  2. Como el ámbito de su estudio se limita a unidades individuales, el grado de agregación tiende a ser limitado. Por ejemplo, una colección de empresas significa una industria.
  3. Se ocupa principalmente de problemas como la distribución de recursos y políticas y principios relacionados.
  4. Las principales herramientas o instrumentos que utiliza para estudiar problemas económicos incluyen la oferta y la demanda.
  5. El determinante principal que resuelve los problemas en microeconomía es el precio.
  6. El método de estudio que utiliza esta rama de la economía es, a saber, el análisis de equilibrio parcial. Bajo este método, el impacto de una variable sobre todas las demás variables se considera igual.
  7. Como la determinación de la producción y el precio de una unidad económica individual forma una de las principales preocupaciones de la microeconomía, la sucursal también se conoce como «Teoría de precios».
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Teorías significativas en microeconomía

Las siguientes son algunas de las teorías significativas empleadas en Microeconomía.

  1. Teoría del valor de entrada de producción

Esta teoría argumenta que el costo de un producto o servicio está determinado por el número de insumos utilizados en su producción. Por ejemplo, tierra, trabajo, capital, impuestos, etc.

2. Teoría de la demanda del consumidor

Se refiere a la correlación entre la preferencia de consumo de productos y servicios y el gasto de consumo.

3. Teoría del costo de oportunidad

Según esta teoría, el valor o costo de la siguiente mejor alternativa existente es el costo de oportunidad. El costo de oportunidad depende de la calidad o el valor de la siguiente mejor opción y no del número de opciones.

4. Teoría de la producción

Se refiere al proceso de conversión de entradas en salidas. El objetivo es seleccionar la combinación correcta de productos y combinar técnicas para reducir el costo y maximizar las ganancias.

Ventajas de la microeconomía

Las siguientes son algunas ventajas principales de la microeconomía:

  1. Ayuda a predecir el aumento potencial de los precios según el estudio de la demanda y la oferta.
  2. Observar y analizar el comportamiento de las pequeñas unidades económicas y la demanda – oferta encadenan a los tomadores de la decisión – de hacer la asignación autorizada de recursos.
  3. Los conceptos de microeconomía permiten a las asociaciones empresariales determinar su curso de acción futuro.
  4. Con sus modelos simples de análisis de problemas económicos, comprender los fenómenos económicos generales se vuelve más sencillo.
  5. La microeconomía proporciona la base para estudiar Macroeconomía.

Desventajas de la microeconomía

Aunque la microeconomía es vital para estudiar las unidades individuales de una economía, sufre limitaciones inherentes.

  1. La microeconomía supone que el impacto de una variable de producción es igual a todas las demás variables de producción. Tal suposición no es realista.
  2. Se esfuerza por la política de laissez – faire o capitalismo puro, lo cual no es factible.
  3. Depende de la macroeconomía, específicamente para la tasa de interés y la determinación de ganancias.
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Contenido

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